During the very first battles with the Red Army, the Germans faced a "unexpected problem." The fact is that in our army, unlike the armies that the Wehrmacht still had to deal with, quite a lot of women served. What to do with them when they were captured was not entirely clear. The commander of the 4th Field Army, Kluge, on 6/29/1941, without orders, ordered that all women in military uniform be shot. True, he was pulled out of the OKH already on 1.7.1941, even for the Germans it was already too much.
It is not known how many female soldiers of the Red Army were captured in Germany. Torture, bullying, violence, executions - were commonplace.
In August 1941, on the orders of Emil Knol, commander of the field gendarmerie of the 44th Infantry Division, a prisoner of war was shot - a military doctor
In the city of Mglinsk in the Bryansk region in 1941, the Germans captured two girls from the sanitary unit and shot them
After the defeat of the Red Army in the Crimea in May 1942, an unknown girl in military uniform was hiding in the house of a resident of Buryachenko in the Mayak fishing village of Mayak near Kerch. On May 28, 1942, the Germans discovered her during a search. The girl resisted the Nazis, shouting: “Shoot, you bastards!” I am dying for the Soviet people, for Stalin, and you, monsters, will have dog death! ”The girl was shot in the yard.
Executed Soviet woman military doctor
At the end of August 1942, a group of sailors was shot dead in the village of the Crimean Krasnodar Territory, among them there were several girls in uniform.
In the village of Starotitarovskaya of the Krasnodar Territory, among the shot prisoners of war, a corpse of a girl in a red army uniform was found. She had a passport in the name of Tatyana Alexandrovna Mikhailova, 1923. She was born in the village of Novo-Romanovka.
In the village of Vorontsovo-Dashkovskoye, Krasnodar Territory, in September 1942, the captured military assistant parasite Glubokova and Yachmenev were brutally tortured.
On January 5, 1943, not far from Severny Farm, 8 Red Army men were captured. Among them is a nurse named Luba. After prolonged torture and bullying, all those captured were shot.
Division intelligence translator P. Rafes recalls that in the village of Smagleyevka, liberated in 1943, 10 km from Kantemirovka, residents told how, in 1941, “a wounded lieutenant girl was pulled naked on the road, her face, hands were cut, her breasts were cut off ... "
Often captured women were subjected to violence before death. A soldier from the 11th Panzer Division, Hans Rudhoff, testifies that in the winter of 1942 “... Russian nurse-men lay on the roads. They were shot and thrown onto the road. They lay naked ... On these dead bodies ... obscene inscriptions were written "
After the fall of Sevastopol in July 1942, about 300 female medical workers were captured: doctors, nurses, and nurses. Initially, they were sent to Slavuta, and in February 1943, collecting about 600 women prisoners of war in the camp, loaded them into wagons and taken to the West. February 23, 1943 brought to the city of Zoes. They lined up and announced that they would work in military factories. In the group of prisoners was Evgenia Lazarevna Klemm. A Jewess, a teacher of history at the Odessa Pedagogical Institute, posing as a Serb. She enjoyed special authority among women prisoners of war. ELKlemm on behalf of everyone in German stated: “We are prisoners of war and will not work in military factories.” In response, they began to beat everyone, and then drove them into a small room, in which, due to cramped conditions, it was impossible to sit down or move. So they stood for almost a day. And then the rebels were sent to Ravensbrück. This women's camp was created in 1939. The first prisoners of Ravensbrück were prisoners from Germany, and then from European countries occupied by the Germans. All the prisoners were cut off naked, dressed in striped (in blue and gray stripes) dresses and jackets without lining. Underwear - shirt and underpants. No bras or belts were supposed to. In October, a pair of old stockings were issued for six months, but not everyone managed to get into them until the spring. Shoes, as in most concentration camps, are wooden blocks.
Executed Soviet soldiers(Executed woman military doctor on the left side of the photo)
One of the prisoners S. Müller testifies to the impression that Soviet women made on the prisoners of Ravensbrück:
“... on one Sunday of April, we became aware that Soviet prisoners refused to carry out any order, referring to the fact that, according to the Geneva Convention of the Red Cross, they should be treated as prisoners of war. For the camp authorities, this was an unheard-of insolence. All the first half of the day they were forced to march along Lagerstrasse and were deprived of lunch.
But women from the Red Army bloc (as we called the barracks where they lived) decided to turn this punishment into a demonstration of their strength. I remember someone shouted in our block: “Look, the Red Army is marching!” We ran out of the barracks, rushed to Lagerstrasse. And what did we see?
It was unforgettable! Five hundred Soviet women, ten in a row, keeping an equal footing, walked, as if in a parade, minting a step. Their steps, like a drum roll, rhythmically beat the beat along Lagerstrasse. The whole column moved as a whole. Suddenly a woman on the right flank of the first row gave a command to sing. She counted: “One, two, three!” And they sang:
Get up a huge country
Get up to the mortal battle ...
I had previously heard them singing this song in their huts in an undertone. But here it sounded like a call to fight, like faith in a quick victory.
Then they sang about Moscow.
The fascists were puzzled: the punishment by marching the humiliated prisoners of war turned into a demonstration of their strength and adherence.
Soviet women prisoners of war more than once defeated their enemies and co-prisoners with the unity and spirit of resistance. Once, 12 Soviet girls were included in the list of prisoners intended to be sent to Majdanek, in gas chambers. When the SS men came to the hut to pick up the women, the comrades refused to extradite them. The SS men managed to find them. “The remaining 500 people formed five people each and went to the commandant. The translator was E.L. Klemm. "The commandant drove the arrivals into the block, threatening them with execution, and they began a hunger strike."
In February 1944, about 60 female prisoners of war from Ravensbrück were transferred to a Heinkel aircraft factory in a concentration camp in Barth. The girls refused to work in military production. Then they were lined up in two rows and ordered to undress to shirts, remove wooden blocks. For many hours they stood in the cold, every hour the warden came and offered coffee and bed to someone who agrees to go to work. Then three girls were thrown into a punishment cell. Two of them died from pneumonia.
The former prisoner of Germain Tillon in her memoirs gave a peculiar characterization to Russian women prisoners of war who fell in Ravensbrück: “... their cohesion was explained by the fact that they had gone through an army school before they were captured. They were young, strong, tidy, honest, and also quite rude and uneducated. Among them there were intellectuals (doctors, teachers) - friendly and attentive. In addition, we liked their rebellion, unwillingness to obey the Germans. "