The heroic defense of Leningrad from Nazi invaders went down in the history of the Great Patriotic War as one of the brightest pages of steadfastness, selfless courage of the Soviet people. The heroism and dedication of Leningrad residents are an example of the Soviet people's loyalty to their homeland
In the Great Patriotic War, Leningrad passed the most severe tests. The working people of the city showed unprecedented heroism in history.
The German command attached great importance to the capture of Leningrad, the largest industrial and cultural center of the USSR. “In the Leningrad region,” Hitler said, “Finns are claiming. To level Leningrad with the land in order to then give it to the Finns ”(1). Such a fate was prepared for Leningrad in the plans of the fascist invaders. The fulfillment of this task would allow the Nazis to reign supreme not only in the Baltic Sea, but throughout the north-west of Europe.
To seize the Baltic states and Leningrad, the fascist German command formed the Army Group North. These armies launched the offensive on June 22, after 7 days they occupied Riga and July 9: they reached the northern outskirts of Pskov. July 15, German tanks were already in the area of Soltsy and Narva.
In the second half of August, the Germans concentrated a 300,000 army near Leningrad. This army was armed with 6,000 guns, 19,000 machine guns, 4500 mortars, 1000 tanks and 1000 combat aircraft (2).
At the same time, the Finnish army, consisting of 16 divisions, went on the offensive in Leningrad (3). On September 7, the enemy captured Shlisselburg and blocked Leningrad. A huge city with a large population, factories and factories was cut off from the country's main economic base.
In connection with the blockade of Leningrad, in addition to the tasks of defending the city, the most difficult tasks of evacuating the population and supplying the city arose; food and fuel. The solution to these problems was carried out under the leadership of party and Soviet organizations.
This article covers only one issue - the evacuation of the population of Leningrad.
The evacuation of the population can conditionally be divided into three periods, each of which has its own chronological framework and its own characteristics.
From the very first days of World War II, as a result of the unfolding hostilities, the population began to arrive from the front line. For organized reception and evacuation from Leningrad of arriving citizens by the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on June 30, 1941, a city evacuation center was created in Leningrad.
The functions of the city evacuation center, located in the building along the Griboedov Canal, d. No. 6, in the first period were reduced to accounting for all arriving citizens. Then these functions expanded significantly: the evacuation center took upon itself the provision of food and housing for the population, provided him with material assistance, executed documents for further evacuation inland.
In order to receive the population arriving in Leningrad and evacuate it from the city, seven evacuation centers were later organized: at Moscow, Finland, Baltic and Vitebsk stations, at the Leningrad port, at the Moscow sorting and Kushelevka stations.
For accommodation and temporary residence of the population who arrived in the city, they were created in the buildings of dormitories.
If in the first period, before the blockade, hostels were located in only seven schools: on Ligovskaya street 46 and 87, Rubinstein 13, Goncharnaya 15, Moika 38, Zhukovsky 59 and Lesnoy prospekt 20, then in connection with the blockade, the population who arrived in the city found shelter in 42 schools.
The evacuated population from the Karelian-Finnish, Estonian and Latvian republics, the Leningrad region, as well as families of military personnel from the front line came to the city evacuation center. These citizens had no shelter, lost all their property, and therefore were in a particularly difficult situation.
The military commandant's office of the city facilitated the evacuation of the population not registered in Leningrad. Before the blockade of Leningrad, 147,500 people were evacuated by means of vehicles to the interior of the country through the city evacuation center. In addition, 9,500 people were transported on foot. The latter accompanied livestock and property to the rear (4).
The approach of the front threatened especially the children. The question of saving children was specially considered by the Soviet government. The government invited the Executive Committee of the Leningrad Council of Workers' Deputies to remove 400 thousand children from Leningrad. The Executive Committee of the Leningrad City Council on July 2, 1941 outlined specific measures for the export of 400 thousand children of preschool and school age (5).
Seven days after the start of the war, a planned evacuation was organized not only for children, but also for the adult population. The evacuation took place with the help of the administration of factories, evacuation centers and the city railway station. By August 7, 311,387 children were evacuated from Leningrad to the Udmurt, Bashkir and Kazakh republics, to the Yaroslavl, Kirov, Vologda, Sverdlovsk, Omsk, Perm and Aktobe regions (6).
The dispersal of evacuated children was mainly carried out in remote areas. Nevertheless, many urban children turned up in areas of the Leningrad Region, which were soon occupied by Nazi forces.
For a more successful and planned removal of the population along the roads of the Leningrad railway junction, the Executive Committee of the Leningrad City Council in early September 1941 decided to create a central evacuation center to which the regional offices under the Executive Committees of the district Soviets were subordinate. The evacuation centers of the district soviets kept records of children and their accompanying persons according to the lists compiled by the house administrations. These lists gave the right to purchase train tickets, the free sale of which was discontinued in early September at all stations in Leningrad.
Evacuation was carried out by rail, highway and country roads. The evacuated population of the Karelian Isthmus was heading along the Peskarevskaya road and the right bank of the Neva, bypassing Leningrad. For him, by decision of the Leningrad City Council, near the hospital. Mechnikov at the end of August 1941, a food station was organized. On-site convoy parking, medical services and veterinary supervision of livestock were being established.
The hard way without hot food exhausted people. Many of them were in motion for more than 30 days. It was especially difficult for children. From the examination of the Leningrad Health Department, it is clear that only on August 21, 15 children with dysentery were identified (7).
The approach of the front made the evacuation more difficult. Often the trains fell under the bombing of enemy aircraft and stood idle for a long time due to the destroyed path and transport.
On August 27, railway communication with the country was completely interrupted: on September 8, the enemy, having captured Shlisselburg, went to the southern shore of Lake Ladoga; thereby railways and country roads were completely cut. This ended the first period of evacuation.
Thus, the planned evacuation of the population began on June 29 and continued until September 6, 1941 inclusive. During this time, 706,283 people were evacuated, including 164,320 people were evacuated, 401,748 people were district councils, 117,580 people were evacuated, and 22,635 people were in the city railway station (8).
In October and November 1941, the population of Leningrad was evacuated by water through Lake Ladoga. During this time, 33,479 people were transported to the rear. At the end of November 1941, the evacuation of the population by air began. By the end of December of that year, 35 114 people were transferred by planes (9).
The total number of evacuated during the first period was 774,876 people. In the second period, the evacuation of the population from blocked Leningrad was carried out along the highway - through Lake Ladoga.
The road began behind the Okhten bridge and went to Ladoga along the old highway. Having walked along the ice of the lake, she was heading into the forests - north of the railway. Bypassing Tikhvin, in which the Germans were, the highway reached the Zaborovye station. With great difficulty, cargoes over hundreds of kilometers were transported along narrow glades.
On November 16, 1941, the first company of the road regiment entered the laying of an ice route through Lake Ladoga. With great exertion, work was completed in a short time, and horse-drawn transport moved across the ice. Traffic controllers and vouchers for clearing the path from the snow became on the road. Through certain stretches of the road, tents were pulled and ice shelters from the weather were arranged. On the islands closest to the road, warm dugouts were equipped. Every two hundred meters on the highway at night there were lit lights. Anti-aircraft guns guarded the route from enemy air raids. The closest distance from the road to the front of the front was 10 km. This circumstance enabled the enemy to constantly conduct artillery shelling of the highway.
On November 22, several dozens of cars passed the Ladoga ice for the first time. On the eastern shore of the lake were warehouses of bread, meat, potatoes, sugar, butter, salt and tobacco. In addition, ammunition, equipment, weapons and medicines were waiting for shipment to Leningrad.
In order to save the civilian population of Leningrad and the army from starvation, all this had to be transported across the ice track.
From Leningrad people with families and alone reached out to the Finland Station. Family members who retained the ability to move, carried homemade sleds with baskets and knots.
By rail, Leningraders were transported to the western shore of Lake Ladoga. Then the evacuees had to overcome the extremely difficult path along the ice route to the village of Kabon.
Cars with people constantly came under fire. The ice road was systematically collapsing. E. Fedorov as follows describes one of the episodes of the crossing: “... ice broke under a running car, and people plunged into ice water. The fighters, travelers rushed into the wormwood and caught everyone. In clothes captured by frost, frozen in ice shell, they delivered the rescued to a heating tent ”(10).
After the liberation of Tikhvin from the Nazi invaders, the over-lake section of the road was significantly reduced. Shortening the route accelerated the delivery of goods and greatly facilitated the conditions for the evacuation of the population.
During the evacuation of the population along the ice route of Lake Ladoga, large tasks were assigned to the employees of the Lenavtotrans trust. The management and technical staff of the trust, together with the fleet directors, were charged with the responsibility of carefully checking the technical condition of the vehicles. It was also necessary to check the degree of training and practical skills of car drivers mobilized by district military enlistment offices and the Leningrad city police. In conditions of blockade and famine, it was far from an easy task to organize the uninterrupted operation of the Lenavtotrans Trust. The workers of the trust, overcoming enormous difficulties, nevertheless achieved great successes in transporting people. However, there were cases when the management of Lenavtotrans did not ensure the implementation of the transportation plan.
So, on January 22, 1942, only 40 buses entered the line instead of 50. Of these, 29 cars reached the destination point - Zhikharevo station, 11 cars were out of order before reaching Lake Ladoga. The remaining passengers had to be transported around the city in cars to warm rooms.
Soviet and party organizations took decisive measures to eliminate shortcomings in the operation of transport. In his letter to the city prosecutor, deputy chairman of the City Executive Committee, comrade On this occasion, Reshkin wrote on February 2, 1942: “As a result of such a criminal attitude to the assigned case, about 300 passengers, of whom there were many children, froze in the frosts of 35–40 ° C” (14). The case was transferred to the investigating authorities to bring the perpetrators to justice. To detain cars traveling from Leningrad empty, according to the decision of the Military Council of the Leningrad Front, control posts were established at the corner of Kommuna Street and Ryabovskoye Shosse and at the corner of Kommuna Street and Krasin Street. The detained cars were sent for people to the Zvezdochka movie theater, where an evacuation center was organized, at which the evacuees landed.
It should be noted that during the construction of the ice route, before the mass evacuation of the population (January 22, 1942), 36 118 people were evacuated by hiking and unorganized transport through Lake Ladoga (15).
Only a few could get to direct voyages from Leningrad to the place of loading into wagons. Most of the population was evacuated in two stages, with a transplant. First of all, it was necessary to get to the Finland Station and take the train to the western shore of Lake Ladoga. This stretch of the path was relatively easy. It was much more difficult to wait in line for the car and to overcome Lake Ladoga under conditions of systematic bombing and shelling. The final points of the exhausting path were Zhikharevo, Lavrovo and Kabony stations. At each of the three stations there were evacuation centers that had warm rooms and food for people. From here, the evacuees were sent to the deep rear. The question of evacuating the population from Leningrad was considered by the State Defense Committee, in the decision of which it was proposed to transport 500,000 people along the ice route (16).
Fulfilling this decision, the party and Soviet organizations of Leningrad in early December 1941 organized evacuation centers at Finland Station, Borisova Mane, in Zhikharevo, Voybokalo, Lavrovo and Kabon.
Starting from the third of December 1941, evacuation trains with Leningraders began to arrive in Borisov Mane. Two trains arrived daily. The evacuation center did not have equipped premises and therefore people were placed among the local population of 30-40 people per room.
Later, in the village of Vaganovo, a tent camp was created to heat the evacuees. The town consisted of 40 tents and accommodated up to 2,000 people (17).
The arrival of evacuation trains, cars and horses with people was uneven. The covered buses departing from Leningrad, as already indicated, were in poor technical condition and reached the Borisova Griva in only a small amount. The evacuation center had to pick up stuck people, heat and feed them.
Sometimes in Borisova Griva received 6 trains per day. Unloading people was carried out by carriage and, as a rule, depending on the approach of cars. Later, on warm days, simultaneous unloading of the entire train was practiced. This made it possible to reduce idle wagons under unloading and accelerate the delivery of the empty station.
The evacuation center of Borisov Mane had three loading platforms with directions to Kabona, Lavrovo and Zhikharevo. Landing of people from the platforms onto cars was carried out exclusively by the dispatching apparatus, and, as a rule, multi-family, sick and children were placed on buses, and all the rest in open cars. After boarding the vehicles, the checkpoint of the border troops of the NKVD checked the documents of the evacuated.
On a one and a half-ton GAZ-A car, 12 people sat down with things, and from 22 to 25 people sat on a bus.
From December 2, 1941 to April 15, 1942, 502,800 people arrived in Borisov Griv (18). A much smaller part of the evacuees traveled by passing cars and walked along the Ladoga highway to Zhikharevo, Kabony and Lavrovo without entering Borisova Griva. The most massive evacuation took place in March and April 1942, when the transport of the ice route worked most clearly. During the same time, 45% of those evacuated to the total number of people who were evacuated from Borisova Griva to Zhikharevo and Voybokalo, 30% to Lavrovo and 25% to Kabon (19).
In the first period of mass evacuation along the ice route, the evacuation center in Borisova Griva met with great difficulties: cars for transporting people across the lake entered it irregularly. On this issue, the Military Council of the Leningrad Front took a number of specific measures, after which the supply of vehicles improved. Cars began to regularly go to the evacuation center for loading. This, in turn, has led to a decrease in train downtime. Particularly clearly worked some motor vehicles and the NKVD convoy.
In addition to the military road transport, the evacuated Leningraders were transported by buses of the Moscow and Leningrad columns. They had up to 80 cars at their disposal, with which they transported up to 2500 people a day, despite the fact that a large number of cars were out of order daily (20).
At the cost of enormous tension of the moral and physical forces of the drivers and the command staff of the military units, the motor vehicle fulfilled its task. In March 1942, traffic reached about 15,000 people per day (21).
The personnel of the evacuation center in Borisova Mane totaled 120 people. The evacuation work was organized around the clock. Together with the canteen and police officers, Borisov Mane evacuation center totaled 224 people, including 29 medical personnel (22).
The mass evacuation of the population of Leningrad in the most difficult winter conditions was successful. However, the case was not complete without casualties. Deaths occurred in all evacuation centers: Borisova Griva, Lavrov, Zhikharev, Tikhvin, and even in cars and cars. They accounted for a small percentage of the total number of evacuated. So, in the spring of 1942, in the immediate vicinity of Borisova Griva and in the village itself, 2,813 corpses were discovered and buried. The burial took place at the Irinovsky and New cemeteries (23). According to the lists of doctors of the Tikhvin evacuation center for four months of 1942, from January to April inclusive, 482 people died in railway wagons en route to Tikhvin. During the same time, 34 people died in the Tikhvin Infectious Disease Hospital (24).
The Leningrad party organization, together with the evacuation center, took decisive measures to save people along the way. Enhanced nutrition was required. Success, evacuation and saving human lives depended on regular food on the way. The Soviet government, providing all possible assistance to Leningraders, allocated them the necessary food funds.
By decision of the Military Council of the Leningrad Front, everyone evacuated at the Finland Station received a hot lunch and 500 g of bread. After lunch, before boarding the wagons, Leningraders received bread on the route according to special coupons at the rate of 1 kg per person (25). In the first period of mass evacuation, the Borisov Mane evacuation center supplied Leningraders with bread and soup. Since February 23, 1942, food in Borisova Mane was discontinued.
By this time, the evacuation center and motor transport battalions managed to establish a quick transfer of people from railway cars to cars. In this regard, food bases were expanded beyond Lake Ladoga - in Zhikharev, Lavrov and Kabon, Leningraders received a hot two-course lunch and 150 g of bread each. In addition, evacuation centers gave each on the road 1 kg of bread and 200 g of meat products. Children under 16 years old additionally received one bar of chocolate.
The head of the Tikhvin evacuation center Korolkov was instructed to give the evacuees of Leningrad, in addition to a two-course hot lunch, rations, which consisted of 40 g butter, 20 g sugar and 500 g bread. Children's echelons received rations and on the road (26). Funds for rations were issued by the People's Commissar of the USSR, and funds for hot meals were issued by the Military Council of the Leningrad Front. Responsibility for food was assigned to the heads of evacuation centers.
The chairmen of the district evacuation commissions issued coupons for bread and hot meals to all evacuated. These coupons are strictly taken into account and registered on the back of evacuation certificates. Those leaving with passing cars received only coupons for hot meals.
Evacuation centers overcame significant difficulties in the timely supply of food to people. Particularly clear organization of work was required from food outlets in Volkhovstroi, where a huge number of people gathered. So, in March April 1942, 2 canteens worked in Volkhovstroy. These canteens had six lunch distribution points and four ticket offices. Particular responsibility was assigned to the employees issuing dinner tickets.
The evacuation center, in exchange for bread coupons and hot dinners of the regional zvakomissii, issued each evacuated person their coupon for lunch and bread, for which canteens were issued. These coupons took into account the consumption of products and the number of people arriving with a train. After the train departed, the evacuation center took the coupons from the canteen workers. At the end of the day, a general calculation of coupons was made and an act was drawn up on the consumption of products. In order to prevent theft of products, coupons in form were changed daily in such a way that last day's coupon could not get lunch and bread again.
In Volkhovstroi, as in other evacuation centers, besides a hot lunch, Leningraders received 1 kg of bread on the road. In this regard, each train required up to 3 tons of bread, which had to be packaged in a timely manner. Trains went one after another, from 12 to 16 thousand people were daily in them (27).
From December 1, 1941 to April 15, 1942, according to the evacuation points of Borisov Griv, Lavrovo, Kabony, Zhikharevo, Voybokalo and Volkhovstroy, the following was spent:
Bread - 928.4 t
Groats - 94.4 t
Dry vegetables - 33.7 t
Meat - 136.6 t
Meat products - 144.2 t
Zhirov - 62.2 t
Sugar - 3.9 t
Chocolate - 22.1 t
Salts - 8.3 t
Tea - 113.0 kg
Vodka - 528 l. (28)
The duty of evacuation centers included not only the timely provision of food to people, but also the equipment of wagons with bunks, stoves and windows. Only the Volkhovstroi wagon section was equipped with 13,561 wagons: 7876 furnaces and 11,000 chimneys were manufactured by the workers of the wagon section. For the device of bunks and ladders, they had to cut and use 123,650 boards (29).
Boarding the cars took place at the stations Zhikharevo, Kabony and Lavrovo. Each echelon took from 2500 to 3800 people. From these stations, trains to Volkhovstroy departed without a schedule, as wagons loaded. The lack of equipped wagons sometimes led to a large overload of trains and a huge concentration of people at the stations. So, on March 29, 8 thousand people gathered at Lavrovo and Kabony stations, and on March 30 another 10 thousand arrived at the same stations (30). To send these people required 7 echelons at the rate of 2500 people each. There were cases when 50-65 people were accommodated in each carriage (31).
In Volkhovstroy, it was not always possible to attach additional cars to the train and thus free the cars from overload. The lack of cars here was felt even more. In addition, at Volkhovstroy station, trains were included in the schedule and they could not be delayed. At the same time, the wagon was reloaded due to the lack of shunting locomotives for supplying the wagons to the train.
Upon arrival of each train at st. Volkhovstroy medical center staff went around all the cars and took pictures of the weakened and sick. Patients went to the clinic and medical centers, where they underwent inpatient treatment. There were 1,495 such patients in Volkhovstroy for the entire period of evacuation. In addition, 6046 people received primary health care directly in the wagons (32).
In each carriage there was a headman appointed by the head of the train and the head of the evacuation center. These elders monitored the order in the car, gave detailed information about the state of people's health to Smolny and the People's Commissariat, and also brought to the attention of higher organizations about traffic delays or lack of food.
The proximity of the front had an extremely negative effect on the work of the Northern Railway. Enemy aircraft constantly bombed the road and disabled it. So, for example, on March 29, all trains were delayed on the way to Tikhvin from 7 to 9 hours (33).
Loading in trains was not always accompanied by rapid movement through Vologda and other points of the country. The delay occurred mainly in the front-line section of the road. In the early days of April 1942, only 100 km passed in 78 hours on the Volkhov-Efimovskaya evacohelon section. There were 2500 people in the cars, of which 900 were children. The head of the train, Ulyamsky, in his telegram to the People’s Commissariat of Railways regarding traffic delays, wrote: “... We starve for the third day. 16 people died on the way. I ask for urgent measures ”(34).
On April 5, a telegram from Zaborye was received in the name of A. A. Zhdanov from the head of the Vasilyev carriage, which read: “The evacuated train 406 received one hundred and fifty grams of bread in the morning of the first lunch. Until now, he has received neither food nor bread. People are dying along the way. Take urgent action ”(35). In response to the telegram, the deputy chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars A.N. Kosygin, who was in Leningrad at that time, ordered that 1 kg of bread be given to each passenger at Volkhovstroy station.
The delay in the echelons took place not only in the front-line zone, but also at a considerable distance from the front. So, in the first half of April, it took 25-30 hours to travel an insignificant distance between Babaevo and Cherepovets (36). Delayed echelons occurred not only due to bombing of the route by enemy aircraft, but also due to the congestion of the road. The railroad workers made desperate efforts to ensure the unhindered movement of trains with the evacuated population to the eastern regions of the country.
Evacuation points at large railway stations with their strict limits on food almost always could not fully satisfy the needs of passengers. Traffic jams formed on the way violated the train schedule and the normal operation of food points. In such cases, carriages-benches came to the place of concentration of trains, which supplied people with food.
The culprits of a negligent attitude to the evacuation business were severely punished. So, Comrade Commander of the Northern Railway Comrade Pronin was reprimanded on March 31, 1942 in an order for the People’s Commissariat of Railways “for unsatisfactory provision of evacuation, systematic delays in the supply of trains and the departure of trains” (37).
The rhythm of the work of the railway stations Zhikharevo, Kabony, Lavrovo, Tikhvin and Volkhovstroy also depended on the accuracy of the Ladoga route, which operated until April 21, 1942. The ice route played an exceptional role not only in evacuating the population of Leningrad, but also in supplying the city and army with food and weapons. It transported 354,200 tons of cargo to Leningrad, including 268,400 tons of food (38).
Overcoming exceptional difficulties, motor transport workers and railway workers fulfilled their task with honor.
The archive of the fund (7384) of the Leningrad City Council contains numerous telegrams and telephone messages about sending special trains from the stations of Kabony, Zhikharevo and Lavrovo. Telegrams provide an opportunity to imagine the life of these stations, full of incredible difficulties. It was at these stations that exceptional tension was in operation from the beginning of the blockade until April 15, 1942, when evacuation was temporarily stopped.
Thus, thanks to the colossal efforts of party and Soviet organizations, evacuation centers, railway workers and military transport battalions, from January 22, 1942 to April 15, 1942 554,463 people were evacuated inland (39). This was the second, most difficult, period of evacuation.
After clearing Lake Ladoga of ice, on May 27, 1942, the third period of evacuation began.
The Defense Committee decided in the navigation of 1942 to evacuate 300,000 people from Leningrad (40). First of all, it was necessary to ensure uninterrupted reception of vessels of the Ladoga Flotilla in Cabons. The current pier number 5 in Cabons could not provide for the unloading of people and goods. Therefore, the Military Council of the Leningrad Front ordered the construction of two small piers in a short time. The piers were equipped in such a way as to prevent the accumulation of people on them, for enemy aircraft conducted systematic reconnaissance and bombing. To service the piers, cars were appointed that were supposed to immediately take people off the scythe.
According to the plan for the removal of the population from Leningrad, it was planned to bring up to 10,000 people a day. Given the impossibility of arranging a landing at the impassed Cabona of such a number of people, it was necessary to organize a second landing site at Lavrovo station. A dirt road was laid to approach the dead end of Lavrovo Station. To service the population in Kabony, a winter canteen was restored with a capacity of 10-12 thousand people per day. At the same time, 46 field-type boilers were equipped and four bakeries were repaired with a total baking of bread up to 16,000 kg per day. 132 shelters were set up to shelter from bad weather. Bus convoy workers and 400 loaders settled in the forest with all outbuildings (41).
In June, July and August, people were transported in extremely rainy weather. Rain washed away the roads and made traffic impossible. Transportation had to be carried out at night in order to shelter ships and people from enemy aircraft.
Separate transportation of people and luggage of evacuees extremely complicated the work of the evacuation center in Cabons. People unloaded from ships were forced to wait for their luggage up to 5-6 days. This circumstance led to a forced congestion of people. People required food for a longer period, which led to cost overruns. Enormous queues were created at food outlets. At the end of July 1942, only the canteen at the Lavrovo station daily let out up to 8-9 thousand lunches in excess (42).
In order to save food and eliminate excessive nervousness and confusion, the separate transportation of people and baggage was canceled. Evacuees were allowed to take personal belongings with them onto the ship.
Unloading things from ships and loading them onto trolleys and cars, as a rule, was carried out by the evacuated themselves, since the assistance from the working companies was extremely insufficient. To transport things, the pier had a motor transporter, which, however, very often failed. In this case, the evacuees were forced to bring trolleys with cargo themselves to the end of the pier - to the place of departure.
Together with adults, in the spring and summer of 1942, orphans were evacuated. They were living witnesses of the death of their loved ones and survived the horrors of destruction from bombing and shelling. The physical and moral condition of children urgently required a change in environment and changes in living conditions.
Leningrad party and Soviet organizations did everything possible to alleviate the plight of orphaned children. Therefore, orphans who were in orphanages and baby homes, were exported in the first place.
In the fall, after the mass evacuation of the population was completed, the Soviet government allowed the removal of children under 12 years of age whose parents were busy at work and could not leave Leningrad. The transportation of children was given special attention from the workers of evacuation centers and transporters.
Huge difficulties could not prevent the successful implementation of the plan outlined by the Soviet government for the transportation of population from Leningrad.
Thus, in the third period of evacuation, 448 694 people were transported (instead of 300 thousand according to the plan) (44):
in May 1942 - 2,334 people
June - 83993;
July - 227583;
August - 91642;
September - 24216;
October - 15586;
November - 3340.
From November 1, 1942, further evacuation of the population was stopped. Departure from Leningrad was allowed only in exceptional cases on special instructions from the City Evacuation Commission.
On November 1, the evacuation center at the Finland Station and the catering point in Lavrovo stopped working. At all other evacuation centers, the staff was reduced to a minimum. However, the evacuation of the population continued in 1943, until the final expulsion of the Nazi invaders from the borders of the Leningrad Region.
The Leningrad City Evacuation Commission and all regional evacuation centers were closed on January 1, 1944 due to the opening of direct rail links from Leningrad to Moscow.
Thus, during the period of the war and the blockade, 1,814,151 people were evacuated from Leningrad, including:
in the first period - 774876 people,
in the second - 509581 people.,
in the third - 448694 people.
The solution to this extremely difficult task cannot be overestimated. The party apparatus of Leningrad showed exceptional perseverance and resourcefulness in saving people. Together with the party workers, the workers of the Soviet apparatus worked hand in hand. Thousands of Soviet patriots worked to save people from hunger, the horrors of war and the blockade on evacuation centers, railways, and highways. Success in solving this noble task was due to the organization of all the working people of the city and the soldiers of the Leningrad Front.
The evacuation of people from Leningrad made it possible to solve the second problem - improving the nutrition of the remaining part of the population in the city. The decrease in the number of people in the city led to an increase in food supplies continuously flowing through Lake Ladoga.
Evacuated Leningraders made up a smaller part of the city’s population. According to the All-Union Census in 1939, there were 3,191,304 people in Leningrad, including the population of Kolpino, Kronstadt, Pushkin and Peterhof (45). As a result of the occupation, part of the population of the Baltic states and the Karelian Isthmus was forced to remain in Leningrad. At the same time, there was a decrease in the civilian population due to the evacuation and mobilization of the Soviet Army. As of August 1, 1941, there were 2 652 461 people in Leningrad and its suburbs, including 921 658 workers and engineers, 515 934 employees, 747 885 dependents, 466 984 children (46). These people survived the blockade.
In the fierce struggle of the entire Soviet people with the Nazi invaders, Leningraders made a worthy contribution to the cause of the whole people. Leningradites, under the leadership of their party organization, accomplished the greatest feat in the Great Patriotic War. They fought for the conquests of October, for the happiness of the working people of the whole world, for the city of Russian glory and the center of advanced culture. They defended the cradle of the proletarian revolution. Of course, without popular assistance to Leningrad, without the daily care of the Communist Party and the Soviet government, defeating the enemy in a hero city would have been impossible.
In a mortal battle with a hated enemy, the inhabitants of Leningrad and the suburbs showed unprecedented mass heroism, courage and perseverance in history. In the forefront of the fighters were the communists of Leningrad. The organizer and inspirer of the city’s defense was the party organization. She rallied all the working people of the city and directed their efforts towards a common goal - towards victory over the enemy. The communists of the city steadfastly endured all the difficulties of the blockade and, together with the entire population, suffered significant sacrifices. “Seventeen thousand communists,” wrote A. A. Kuznetsov, “died of starvation, from artillery shelling and aerial bombardments, protecting their beloved, native Leningrad” (47).
The great city suffered huge sacrifices, but these sacrifices were not in vain. In a bloody and fierce struggle, the city survived. Leningraders defended him. They found the strength and ability to cope with the most unforeseen difficulties. Leningraders withstood the test that fell to their lot. Before the whole world, they showed unshakable stamina, courage and courage of the Soviet people. The entire progressive world looked with admiration at this heroic defense of the city, in which the banner of socialism was first hoisted in 1917. In a difficult battle on the Neva, the inhabitants of the city of Lenin won a complete victory over the enemy.
On January 15, 1944, the troops of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts launched a decisive offensive and, by January 27, completely liberated the great city of Lenin from the enemy blockade.
The struggle for Leningrad, which lasted about 900 days, ended with the complete defeat of the enemy troops. She facilitated further offensive operations in Karelia, Belarus and the Baltic states. After the victory, the heroic Leningraders in a short time successfully healed the wounds inflicted on the city by war and blockade.
1.1 Nuremberg trial. The collection of materials, t. 1. Ed. 2nd. Gos. ed. legal literature, M., 1954, p. 269.
2. L. A. Govorov. In the battles for the city of Lenin. Articles 1941-1945 Military Publishing House, L., 1945, p. 19.
3. Issues related to coverage of hostilities on the far and near approaches of Leningrad, the formation of militia divisions, and the mobilization of the population to create defensive lines are beyond the scope of this work.
4. The State Archive of the October Revolution and Socialist Construction of the Leningrad Region. Fund. City Evacuation Commission of the Leningrad City Council of Workers' Deputies, No. 330, op. 1, 1941, d.10, l. 3 (further recording will be abbreviated).
5. The State Archive of the October Revolution and Socialist Construction of the Leningrad Region. Fund. Executive Committee of the Leningrad City Council of Workers' Deputies, No. 7384, op. 17, 1941, d.443, l. 103.
6. GAORSS LO, f. 7384, op. 13, d.664, l. 3.
7. GAORSS LO, f. 7384, op. 17, d.378, l. 292.
8. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1941, d. 5, l. 42.
9. A.V. Karasev. About the working people of Leningrad during the blockade. “Historical Archive”, 1956, No. 6, p. 149.
10. E. Fedorov. Ice road. Goslitizdat, L., 1943, p. 59.
11. Ibid., Pp. 65-66.
12. A. Fadeev. Leningrad in the days of the blockade (from the diary). Ed. "Soviet writer", M., 1944, pp. 67-68.
13. Ibid., Pp. 71-72.
14. GAORSS LO, f. 7384, about. 13, d.660, l. 16.
15. A.V. Karasev. About the working people of Leningrad during the blockade. “Historical Archive”, 1956, No. 6, p. 149.
16. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.5, l. 2.
17. Ibid., D. 8, l. 2.
18. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1941, d.8, l. 27, 29, 31.
19. Ibid., P. 27, 29, 31.
20. In the same place, l. 19.
22. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1941, d.8, l. 8.
23. Ibid., L. 38.
24. Ibid., Op. 1, 1942. d. 154, l. 10.
25. Ibid., D. 131, p. 9.
26. Ibid., F. 7384, op. 17, 1942, d.666, l. eleven.
27. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.38, l. 12.
28. Ibid., 1941, d. 9, l. 32.
29. Ibid., 1942, d. 38, l. 4.
30. Ibid., F. 7384, op. 1, 1941, d.677, l. 95.
31. Ibid., F. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.38, l. 6.
32. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.38, l. 9.
33. Ibid., F. 7384, op. 17, 1941, d.677, l. 96.
34. Ibid., L. 21.
35. Ibid., L. 36.
36. Ibid. 51.
37. GAORSS LO, f. 7384, op. 17, 1941, d.677, l. 65.
38. F.I. Orphan. Military-organizational work of the Leningrad organization of the CPSU (b) during the Great Patriotic War. "Questions of History", 1956, No. 10, p. 29.
39. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.5, l. 2.
40. Ibid., 38, l. 100.
41. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d.38, l. 101.
42. Ibid., L. 105.
43. Ibid., L. 114.
44. GAORSS LO, f. 330, op. 1, 1942, d. 40, pp. 6, 7.
45. GAORSS LO, f. 7384, op. 17, d. 456, l. 1.
46. Ibid., L. 2. Accurate registration of the population was made in connection with the introduction of the card system for food products.
47. A.A. Kuznetsov. The Bolsheviks of Leningrad defend their hometown. "Party Building", 1945, No. 9-10, p. 61.